Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries witnessed the creation of “national styles” in art, which built on the contemporary penchant for historicism, even while searching for a new art style and responding to a certain social demand by peoples who were in the process of active nation building. Jewish and Ukrainian “national styles” in art took shape under similar socio-historical conditions, around the same time, and in the same geographic places. An important motivation they shared was resistance to suppression of their culture and heritage by empires and dominant nations. Both believed that a national style should be founded on form rather than on themes, and that form should be based on national heritage—in particular folk art—while reflecting contemporary sensibilities. Artistic "schools" emerged for both the Ukrainian and Jewish "national styles" (known as Boichukism and the Kultur-Lige respectively). There was a degree of collegiality and interaction between the Ukrainian and Jewish artists who were at the forefront of developing the respective "national styles" and one can observe similarities in their works, as is evident in the illustrations featured below.